I have stopped posting blogs, books, and white papers here because my business enjoys a great deal of traffic and the search engines frown upon duplicating content across multiple websites. So please visit the Edit911 Blog & Edit911 Resources.
Working on magazines for several years now, the most common complaint I hear from new writers is how short magazine articles are. Some actually complain at the word count, as if we might suddenly double it just for them. The truth is that it is much harder to write more concisely and takes skill to do so. If you don’t have a good editing service to help out, here are a few tips you can use for writing concisely. They’ll help no matter if you are working on a magazine article or dissertation.
Identify the major components of your work.
Too often people just start writing without taking stock of what direction to take. For magazine articles, this is usually not only the main body of the article but also sidebars and pull quotes. Other types of writing have similar extras. Your dissertation has footnotes, bibliography, and appendices. Pay attention to details such as source materials along the way. If you focus on these things from the beginning, you will better be able to handle your task without having to go back later.
Outline your project.
Your outline is the skeleton of your writing. It holds it together and supports all the details. For a magazine, it is your title, deck, subheads, and sidebar titles. For your dissertation, subheadings are not that different from the subheads in a magazine article, just multiplied in length, number, and level of complexity.
Cut out unnecessary details.
For magazine articles you may have to cut extra illustrations beyond what is necessary to communicate your point. For any writing, there are extra idioms and phrases that become colloquial habits but are not necessary. Any illustrations that are perceived as extra will be cut first by an editor, so you might as well edit them out early in your writing process.
Limit the scope.
When you write for a magazine, you certainly can’t expect the article to be an exhaustive coverage of a topic. The same is true even for a dissertation. For dissertations, there will be extra research that is good but might be outside the scope of your current project. Knowing how to bracket writing scope and even save extras for later is a skill any writer can use.
Keep the main thing the main thing.
Establish your thesis statement and filter every detail, every argument, and every illustration through the thesis of your paper. It will help you stay on track, keeping a check and balance on the things of lesser importance. If need be, post your thesis statement somewhere prominent so that it is a visual reminder to you to write accordingly.
Focus on the audience.
What you write is largely dependent upon for whom you are writing. Don’t miss this important detail to help your illustrations and explanation hit right on target.
Watch the grammar.
Sometimes writers are too wordy because they use words that don’t really matter. Watch words that repeat and trim out the unnecessary ones. Some common problems are words like that and very. Read your work aloud and you will find extra verbiage you can cut and make your writing more concise. That’s our job here. So if you feel you do need help, consider using our editing service to give your writing that extra assist.
I really didn’t have a topic for my dissertation as I finished my coursework. I knew that teaching was one of my strengths, but research was not. I had earned my teaching certification as an undergraduate. Then during seminary I found myself gravitating to topics relate to education, human development, and spiritual development, but I just wasn’t sure the direction I should go for my research.
Then it happened—fatherhood! When I found out that we were expecting I began that 9-month process of reading everything my hands could find related to parenting. My life started to take shape as a parent-to-be. Suddenly it clicked. I would research Christian parenting theories and how they impact faith and childhood development. This was perfect for me, bringing together my past studies and experience along with my current life situation. Becoming a parent was the thing that brought focus to my life and to my research.
In doing so I found my voice. I was living this search for the best parenting theory in my personal life and in my research. This topic was almost too personal at times, but it was definitely me, through and through. Life experience had led me to this place. But is this for everyone? If so, how can you express your voice and passion in finding the right topic for your dissertation?
Look at your experience.
You will probably find yourself working in your areas of interest long before graduate school. Think of what interests you and turn your attention and studies in that direction. Your experience and interests are part of your passion, who you truly are, and hopefully can become part of your dissertation.
Consider your strengths and weaknesses.
You do not want to work on a dissertation that requires skills you do not possess. You may find that you can do so for a small time, but this effort will wear on your passion as well as the rest of you. You can talk with your professors honestly about your strengths and weaknesses and trust their guidance.
Meet others with similar writing, work, and research.
Place yourself in similar situations with those who are writing and researching projects that interest you. Ask yourself if you would you be happy examining that topic for months or years. That is the reality of what you will do, so do not pick a topic or scope that is so difficult that you cannot stand to work on it every day.
It’s OK to switch directions.
If you are heading down the wrong path, it can be devastating. Putting work, time, and money into research that proves wrong for you and your project is frustrating. Taking stock of your research whether changing scope or completely changing plans is OK. You will not be the first to do it. Better to find your sweet spot early in the process than to do so later.
Find the happy medium between passion and obsession.
Be able to distance yourself from your research and disassociate criticisms of your project from your personal feelings. Not being able to do so is setting you up for many difficulties along the way. A healthy passion means that your work inspires you to action and motivates you, but that you can step back and examine your work when needed. Inability to stop and step away from your work will interfere with daily life and should serve as a warning sign to gain perspective.
#1 Make a Fabulous Claim
You can’t write about the whole world in 1000 words, which is about the right length for a crisp essay or blog. So focus in on a fantastic thesis. Make a really strong statement, such as this: “President Obama is the worst (or best) President in history.” Or this: “The U.S. is still (or no longer) the greatest country in the world.” Get the gist? Why bother to write if you don’t stake a strong position? Your powerful claim will announce to the world that you’re a player in the debate, grabbing everyone’s attention from the get go. A force to be reckoned with.
#2 Gather Your Evidence
Think like a judge or lawyer: you’ve got no case without evidence, aka facts. So inventory your facts. Go through the somewhat painful process of listing every single point you can come up with that supports your thesis. If you have no facts at all to support your thesis, not only will your argument be weak, you may not have an argument at all.
#3 Assume Your Audience Disagrees With You
Most people are jaded and skeptical—probably due to having been exposed to so many lies and liars in their lifetime. As a result, they often refuse to believe even concrete, supported, absolute facts that in some way dispute or are at odds with their own beliefs.
#4 Face the Facts: It’s a War Between Knowledge & Ignorance
Merely presenting what you know to be facts—no matter how solid they are and how much support you offer for them—will not convince an audience that’ been brainwashed, indoctrinated, fooled, misled, or otherwise convinced that their views are, themselves, facts—even though you know in your heart and mind you’re right and they’re wrong. I’m regularly confronted by people whose views are completely unsubstantiated and utterly disproven by the facts of reality, and yet they cling to those false beliefs, staunchly denying the absolute facts I present to them. It’s partly sheer ignorance, partly stubbornness, partly embarrassment at being proven wrong, and partly a “me against you” attitude. You know what I’m talking about. It’s happened to us all.
#5 Now Turn the Guns on Yourself: What Do You Know?
Now that we’ve put the audience in their place, so to speak, let’s put ourselves in our place. We, the writers, don’t know that much either. It’s important not to be seduced by hubris, or pride in our knowledge or positions. If you think you know it all, you’ll write an essay or blog that exposes your arrogant, absolutist point of view. And you’ll fail to construct a sound argument. And fail to persuade your audience.
#6 Perform Some Self-Analysis
So analyze your opinions. Tear apart your thesis. Rip into yourself as if you’re the opposition. Why do you believe your thesis is correct? Have you considered the opposite thesis? Why do you have your ideas and opinions? Where did they come from? Do you believe them simply because they’re yours and you’re comfortable with them? Is there a socio-economic or otherwise vested interest in arguing your thesis? Really probe your own underlying assumptions, beliefs, and values. Examine your reasoning. Look for flaws in your own logic and gaps in your evidence.
#7 Improve Your Knowledge Through Research
Open up your mind to the full spectrum of viewpoints on the subject. Read everything you can find. Try to get outside your own paradigm and evaluate the various positions as objectively as possible. Play the devil’s advocate. Don’t become complacent or self-satisfied. Really know not just what you’re talking about, but why.
#8 Get Rhetorical: Logos, Ethos, Pathos
Construct your argument like the Greeks did 2500 years ago—with logos, ethos, and pathos. Logos = being logical in supporting your thesis clearly and directly. Ethos = being ethical: honest and authoritative. Establish your credibility by being fair to the opposition. Build bridges to the audience by stressing shared values. Be measured in tone and don’t exaggerate. Pathos = the emotional element. Put a human face on the issue. Give the audience a reason for caring. Let them know what’s in it for them.
#9 Get Organized
Lead strong: state your thesis in the first paragraph. Then give the audience whatever necessary background information that they need to understand the subject. Follow that up with your case, your evidence, either starting with the most compelling or ending with the most compelling. Make an outline and decide how best to build your case before writing. However, don’t become so rigid that you can’t allow your writing to flow naturally. The organic approach is best: allow your points to grow out of each other naturally, as you write. You will only discover that natural order by and during writing.
#10 Note and Refute Opposing Views
Strategically, it’s a sign of strength to mention and quickly rebut the opposition’s key points. Decide what aspects of the counterargument to simply ignore, which ones to summarize and refute by showing their weaknesses, and which ones, if any, to concede as being valid, perhaps suggesting compromise and reconciliation. At all times, follow the principle of charity: be fair and honest about the opposition. The best place for this refutation of opposing points is in the second paragraph—before you launch into your case—or the second to last paragraph, before you give your concluding summation.
#11 Your Conclusion Should Conclude
In your conclusion, you should reach a conclusion, not merely a summary of what you’ve already said. You could, perhaps, play your ace in the hole in your last paragraph. Or you might explain why this is such an important issue, by noting its broader implications and possible consequences. Perhaps you could relate it to other or larger issues, suggesting the implications for humanity or the future of civilization. Be dramatic, but not melodramatic: always ground your statements in facts and reality.
#12 Hire a Good Academic Editor
Don’t hesitate to seek the help of a good editing service. Whether you need a dissertation editor, a thesis editor, or a book editor, an editing service like www.edit911.com stands ready to help.
One of the most important decisions you will make as a graduate student is choosing your dissertation committee. There are many factors that you should take into consideration when requesting faculty members to sit on your dissertation committee.
Can you work well with them?
This is one of the two most important questions to ask yourself before inviting somebody to sit on your committee. While you do, of course, want people on your committee who can challenge you intellectually, you don’t want hand grenade throwers. You want a committee member who will be honest, challenging, and respectful. You also want people who obey the cardinal rule of reviewing somebody else’s work: comments are to be about the writing, not the writer. If you have to choose between somebody who knows your subject incredibly well and who has a reputation for hostility or being a prima donna and a faculty member who isn’t a subject matter expert but likes you, choose the latter. Here’s a quick checklist of positive attributes to look for:
- They like people.
- They’re prompt.
- They’re generally friendly.
- They can see the other side of the coin.
- They’re consistent.
Can your committee members work well with each other?
This is the other most important question. Be very careful here. Professors, like everybody else, have agendas. There’s nothing wrong with this fact. Political, ideological, and intellectual agendas can make people interesting. However, while both the Frankfurt School Marxist and your institution’s local free-market guru are probably fun to have coffee with, would you want them working together evaluating your dissertation? Remember that each committee member can ask for revisions. Do you want to invite radically opposed kinds of comments? Yes, the chair of your committee can go to bat for you or try to over-rule somebody, but everybody has to sign off on your work. How do they feel about your using a dissertation editor or dissertation editing service of some sort? Do they want you to, insist you do, or forbid you from doing so? Don’t set yourself up for needless conflicts.
Is your advisor a full professor?
This may seem petty to talk about. But academic departments are often very political. Generally, departments do not allow untenured assistant professors to serve as advisors. Departments do, however, allow associate professors to advise. Often, one will be intellectually attracted to younger, energetic faculty members. However, while these associate professors are tenured, they do have to worry about making full professor. Thus, if your advisor is an associate professor and other members of your committee are full professors, your advisor may not feel comfortable challenging people who are going to vote on whether or not to promote him or her. Full professors, at least theoretically, sit at the top of the food chain and will speak their minds and defend their students.
Is the potential committee member enthusiastic about your dissertation idea?
You don’t need somebody who thinks your idea is the greatest thing since sliced bread, but you do need someone who thinks that your subject matter is intellectually worthwhile.
These are some of the most important things to look for when choosing your committee. If you follow this advice, you’ll have smooth sailing. If you’re having trouble, don’t hesitate to hire a good dissertation editing service to help you out.
The biggest lesson I learned while I was a doctoral student? Find out what motivates you. Here are 6 “motivators” I stuck on signs over my desk when I was in the throes of my doctoral dissertation:
#1: The best dissertation is a done dissertation
So many people in my graduate cohort spent endless hours and endless angst searching for the perfect research question, the perfect theory, the perfect sources for their lit review, and the perfect turn of phrase guaranteed to take their masterpiece to a level sure to earn them a place in academic history. That wasn’t me. I picked a topic I found interesting; came up with an appropriate research question, backed into a serviceable theory, got decent sources for the lit review, and finished in a reasonable amount of time. Did I set the bar too low? Is there a doctor in the house? By all means, get help from a good dissertation editor or dissertation editing service if you need it.
#2: Do something every day
Starting a dissertation is like starting an exercise program. The experts say that three to four times a week is fine. What these same experts don’t tell you is that the people who “stick with” an exercise program exercise every day. It may be just 10 or 15 minutes but if you do it every day it becomes a lifelong habit—one you’ll have long after the three-times-a week-folks are trying to offload their treadmill on Craig’s list or looking for another juice bar so they don’t run into their personal trainer who believes they have the slowest healing hamstring pull on record. Do the same with a dissertation—do something every day. Some days all you can do is read a short article; some days even that’s too much and you settle for an online search for articles on one of your sub-sub categories. The group in my cohort who did something every day finished their (our) dissertations first.
#3: Just say “no”
I remember asking a friend in the cohort before ours to have coffee. She said she was saying “no” to everything until she finished her dissertation. She was only doing what she absolutely had to do—everything else would have to wait. I was frankly a little miffed, that is until I began my own dissertation and realized I needed to do the same thing if I was ever going to finish what I started referring to as “that damn dissertation.” Forget multi-tasking, forget even uni-tasking if there is such a thing. A dissertation takes 24/7 focus—it’s that big a beast. Again, the people in my cohort who finished first, in fact finished at all, learned how to say “no.”
#4: Stay healthy
It doesn’t seem like a dissertation should be so physically demanding but it is. It sometimes seems to suck the very life out of you. The only way to stay sane is to take the very time you don’t have and make sure you exercise daily (or twice a day if you need a break), eat right, get enough sleep, and try not to rely on what one cohort member referred to as “better living through chemistry.”
#5: Cut yourself some slack
I had a dissertation schedule. I’m a schedule kind of gal. Unfortunately, dissertations aren’t always schedulable. (I think I spent so much time with words ending in ology and istic—ontology, epistemology, methodology, statistic, positivistic—that I’ve created a whole new vocabulary just to rebel.) Perhaps my most important motivator was “cut yourself some slack.” Some days, weeks even, it’s just too hard. Life gets away from you. The people and things you’ve been ignoring for so long need your attention. You can’t remember if you had lunch, made lunch, went out for lunch, or if you had lunch for breakfast because you can’t remember what day or time it is. Cut yourself some slack.
#6: Better dead than ABD
Okay, maybe that’s a little harsh but for me that’s what it came down to. I didn’t think I could live with myself (nor did I think anyone else could live with me!) if I put in all that time and money and anxiety and sacrifice only to stop short of the finish line. Equally important is that I felt I would be letting down the very people who supported and tolerated me if I didn’t finish. Besides, after a certain amount of time, ABD is worse than never starting. Show me someone ABD more than three or four years after comps and I’ll show you someone with a long-list of excuses targeted at whoever is asking—even when they’re not asking! That ABD should have found herself a dissertation editing company to help out.
DR. WILLIAM SAYS: Expect lots of reading and writing
You may read a book per week per class, and have to discuss it in depth, or even turn in a paper each week.
Learn the basics of how to dissect a book’s content and get a quick overview of its thesis.
My history professor wheeled a cart full of books into class one day, a different book for each student in class. He handed out the books and announced, “At the end of this hour, I want you to turn in a one page book report on this book!”
Talk about a crash course in how to get into the content of a book without actually reading it.
This is what I learned from that experience:
- Read the basics first
- Start with the summary on the back cover
- Peruse the table of contents and chapter titles
- Scan chapter titles and subheads
- Read the forward and introduction
- Then move into reading chapter one or the first page of each chapter.
You’ll be amazed how much you can learn about a book and its thesis from these basics.
DR. DAN SAYS: There’s a veritable litany of suggestions people will give:
- Work hard
- Make good use of your time
- Find a balance
- Find a really good coffee shop/Indian restaurant that delivers, etc. etc. etc.
These are all excellent pieces of advice, and I encourage you to take them all to heart.
That said, though, I would recommend treating grad school like college (unless you had one of those “Four-year-house-party-with-a-$50,000-cover-charge” kind of experiences) in that you should get involved.
It can be tempting to see grad school as your first entry into the ivory tower, calling you to countless hours in the library/lab, but your experience will be richer if you embrace the fullness of where you study.
Depending on your role, you will be a teacher, a student, and a researcher. In this trinity, recognize that your identity and the expectations leveled at you will be fragmented.
Sequestering yourself in one role alone can result in a soul-sucking experience.
DR. SANDY SAYS: Just Do It!
I have yet to meet any person thrilled with the dissertation process. It is one of the most frustrating endeavors we go through to earn our credentials. And to some extent, it is designed that way! The best way to handle it is to just do it!
My dissertation topic was on professional development for educators, a relatively new specialization at that time. I was the coordinator for such programs in my school district and hoped to use my dissertation to help my colleagues throughout the state benefit more from the new state requirements for professional development.
As with many new things in one’s field, most of my professors, including my advisor, didn’t really understand what I was trying to do. The old notions of what constituted professional development were too embedded. No matter how much research I presented on the various theories and principles that formed the basis for effective professional development, that old concept of the speaker on the first day of school and workshops on nothing particularly related to the classroom needs of teachers colored his understanding of my design.
I had reached the point of deciding to be an ABD when my superintendent came to my office for a chat. “It’s an exercise,” he reminded me. “Forget trying to break new ground. Forget everything except meeting the expectations of your advisor and committee and just do it!”
I ruminated on that for a few days before acknowledging the truth of his statements. Then I resubmitted my original proposal, tweaked the way my advisor wanted it, and within two weeks it was approved and I was on my way. Six months later, I received that coveted letter from the dean’s office acknowledging that I had fulfilled all requirements for my doctorate.
So when you’re frustrated with rewriting your proposal for the umpteenth time, when you can’t make your advisor understand what you’re trying to do, when your desire to make breakthrough contributions to your field get the better of you, remember that this is all an academic exercise. It is your admission ticket so that you can do what you really want to do in your chosen field. It is the beginning of the next phase of your career, not your ultimate contribution.
If you decide to seek help, find a good dissertation editing service to advise you.
Then, take a deep breath, refocus on the goal—earning your doctorate—and JUST DO IT!
To borrow a trite analogy, learning to use APA [or any documentation style, for that matter] is like learning to ride a bicycle. Once you understand the mechanics, including how to shift, balance, and stop, the rest is easy. The first step is to purchase, and actually read, an APA manual, either APA5 or APA6, depending on your university’s requirements. Granted, it is not a riveting work but essential. If the thought of reading a reference book causes chills to dance down your spine, it is likely time to seek professional dissertation editing help … not for your phobia but for editing your work.
Based on many years of editing dissertations, I can offer a few essential points that candidates frequently overlook. The top fifteen below may be helpful:
- All references in the text must have a comparable listing on the reference pages and vice versa. Each mention of an author’s name must have an identical spelling for each use.
- Et al. is Latin for ‘and others’; thus, it applies only to three or more authors of the same work. All authors [unless a number in excess of six] should be listed for the first in text citation; if the citation is for two or three authors, all names should appear in each citation.
- All direct quotes in text must have a page number (p.). Page numbers are not required on paraphrased material.
- If referring to the same author in closely connected sentences, it is not necessary to use the author’s date in subsequent citations.
- If websites have no author, begin the reference with the title of the material you retrieved and use that information as the in text citation.
- Listing databases [Ebsco, LexusNexus, etc.] as a source of retrieval is not required on the reference page. The website address is required.
- If you are using APA6, it is not necessary to use a retrieval date on websites.[Retrieved from http://xxxxxx]
- If you are using APA6, locate the doi number, if available, on periodicals. Add it at the end of the citation without a period. [doi: xxxxx]
- Eschew passive language but tread lightly. It is not enough to employ an active verb if the subject of the sentence is incapable of the implied action [anthropomorphism].
- If you are creating a proposal, refer to your work in future tense; if you are writing a completed dissertation, refer to your work in past tense.
- Normally, all references to previous studies are in past tense.
- In qualitative dissertations, you should avoid personal pronouns. Although it is sometimes necessary, to employ the rather stilted phrase, ‘the researcher,’ it is preferable to using I. Qualitative dissertations offer more leeway on author referents but ‘playing’ with sentence construction can help you avoid using either I or ‘the researcher’.
- Double check your Table of Contents not only to check correct page numbers but also to confirm identical wording as your text headings.
- Tables have labels at the top; figures have labels at the bottom.
- Let the computer work for you. If you are using Word, you can go to file and page setup to indicate consistent margins throughout your document. The paragraph tab under format can produce clean margin indentations and create a hanging indent for those pesky references. Under the insert tab, you can indicate page breaks, which rid your work of widowed headings and subheadings.
To keep your bicycle and your dissertation editing running smoothly may require additional maintenance. In the case of your dissertation, this means discovering whether your university committee or graduate school has exceptions to APA and tweaking your work accordingly. Normally, the exceptions relate to spacing and specific required headings within each chapter but, occasionally, there are exceptions to tense selection or other peculiarities. If need be, seek the help of a dissertation editing service.
This should provide a starting checklist for your work. But it’s no substitute for the manual. So if you’re a grad student or scholar, pick one up and enjoy it! Joke. It can be pretty dense reading, but that’s the name of the academic game.
It’s your third year in the doctoral program. You’ve taught like a god. You’ve written seminar papers that have made your teachers weep (in a good way). And you’ve logged more time on airplanes and in hotels than in seminar rooms. The world is starting to know you and your ideas.
You’ve passed comps or prelims.
What do you do now?
Pat yourself on the back. You’ve taken your warm up laps, and now it’s time to get ready for the marathon that’s ahead of you. It’s no secret. But nobody seems to know it. Unlike law school or med school, academic grad school is really two programs.
There’s the coursework, which you’ve aced. Right? That’s all great stuff, but it’s over and you’re on your own now. You’re doing your own stuff. This is the FUN part of graduate school. You’re basically a baby professor at this point.
Now, what most of the dissertation editing books don’t tell you about this part of graduate school, the dissertation stage, is one little word:
What, you may ask, if you’re in the sciences or, god help you, the humanities, does dissertation writing and scholarship have to do with MBA stuff. That’s the stuff you didn’t want to do.
The short answer: Everything. From here on out (and you’ve already been doing it in coursework, teaching, and conference presentations) everything is about pitching and selling ideas.
Does the thought of selling really make you queasy? Get over yourself! Ideas mean nothing if no one wants to read them.
The dissertation phase is about pitching your ideas to your advisor, your committee, and, if you get lucky, fellowship committees.
So, get ready to sell!
It’s time to write the dissertation proposal: the truly condensed version of your dissertation. It’s short and sweet. Usually, it’s about five to ten pages. So, how do you write the proposal?
First off, this is one of those chicken or egg kind of questions. You have to enough to write the proposal. But you won’t know enough to write the whole dissertation. Generally, what you want to do in the dissertation proposal is to frame a question.
You need to be very bold here. Make arguments and assertions, the bolder the better. You also want to present a pretty clear outline of what you intend to do in the dissertation itself. Obviously, you’re in a weird situation here. You don’t know a lot. But you know some things. It’s best to err on the side of audacity. Make your arguments as bold as possible and as clear as possible.
You need to know the current state of your discipline quite well. That’s a given. And you have to announce to the world what you want to do. How are you going to be making a new intervention in the world of scholarship that you know well? That’s what people are going to want to know. What’s new and or exciting about what you want to write?
Start off with a one paragraph argument.
This first paragraph should state what your argument is and probably what you’re basing this argument on. Who are the major players in the field, and how is what you’re writing addressing gaps or problems in their work?
Then write your sub-arguments and conclusion.
Each paragraph that follows (and these can be huge, whopping big paragraphs) can list your sub-arguments. Then, after that, you have to propose a conclusion to what you’re writing.
The secret about a proposal
Would you like to know a little secret about the proposal?
It’s generally pure fiction. What you really write about in your dissertation may or may not conform to what you’re writing about here. That’s just the way things are in this world. But you absolutely do have to write this proposal.
You’ll submit it to your advisor and your committee members and everyone will sign off on it. And then you can get started. Now, you may or may not get full buy in from your committee. Generally what I found is that most of your committee members really won’t care one way or another about what you write. They’re too busy writing their own stuff. So, you can generally sneak your own writing in under their radar.
Score a Fellowship
Do a very good job on the proposal because it can serve as the basis of fellowship proposals. And, baby, you want a fellowship.
Why? Because if you get one of those puppies—anywhere between about twenty thousand dollars and fifty thousand dollars, you can have a very nice year. You can go wherever you want to write the dissertation. Imagine writing on a beach somewhere down in Mexico.
Fellowships are your friend. And they also mean that you don’t have to take time out to teach those pesky undergraduates unless you really want to. They can also set you up for being published, and they make you look like a good candidate for a job. So, do everything that you can to win yourself a dissertation fellowship.
OK, let’s say you’ve written a killer proposal. Your committee says, “My god, this is the next big thing.” And of course I knew you could do it. You edit the proposal slightly and win yourself a fellowship. You’re in like Flynn.
What do you do next? It’s not a bad idea to find a good dissertation editing service to be sure your proposal is well-edited before submitting it.
Then, you have to write the dissertation, of course—which we’ll start tackling the next installment.
It is plagiarism when you take something out of a book and use it as your own. If you take it out of several books then it is research. — Ralph Foss quoting Wilson Mizner
One moon shows in every pool, in every pool the one moon. – Zen Proverb
As a concept, plagiarism is easy to grasp: you take someone else’s work and pass it off as your own. In practice, plagiarism can be a slippery little sucker, eeling away to hide amongst quotations, fair use, common knowledge, and figures of speech.
Even worse, there is a distinct difference between academic plagiarism and the kind that happens off-campus.
Fortunately, the complexities of plagiarism can be navigated with confidence as long as we remember that the crime is a combination of theft and fraud. The value of the stolen object comes from the originality of its idea and/or the quality of its prose. The level of fraud depends on what is extorted from the victim.
In school, plagiarism occurs when the student tries to defraud the teacher of a grade by convincing the teacher they created something actually written by someone else. It does not matter if the actual author – such as a friend or a Website – agrees to this fraud. That only makes them an accomplice.
Professional plagiarism, however, requires that the original author does not give permission for the use of their work. For instance, an unknown song writer gets their tune stolen by a popular band. Even if the ditty turns out to be a dud, the song writer is the victim of theft, regardless of whether the song were copyrighted.
However, people who take from the author with permission are not plagiarists. Speech writers, ghost writers, and the like may give or sell their work if they want to. While the public may feel defrauded when they learn some actor’s “autobiography” was actually written by someone else, well, cry me a river.
But, you may ask, what about when the original author is dead? The moral answer is that passing off any dead guy’s work as your own is definitely plagiarism. The real answer is to get a lawyer to check if the estate holds a copyright.
So by understanding just what plagiarism is, we can tell when and how plagiarism occurs.
John gets an assignment in his history class to write a five-page paper on Thomas
Edison. He goes to Wikipedia and copies and pastes five pages of stuff. The only thing he actually writes is his name. Then he puts the whole paper inside quotation marks and lists Wikipedia on his Works Cited page.
Has plagiarism occurred?
No. John indicated exactly what he took and where he got it from. He still gets an F for being a lazy twit, but he hasn’t violated the honor code.
Jane writes an article for the local newspaper on pollution in the drinking water. Stressing to meet her deadline, she goes into the paper’s “morgue” and finds an article written twenty years ago by some guy. She takes a few lines about the responsibilities of the government to keep the public safe.
Has plagiarism occurred?
Yes. She’s stolen from the author and defrauded the newspaper.
Scenario 2 -a:
Jane writes an article for the local newspaper on pollution in the drinking water. Stressing to meet her deadline, she worries her last paragraph is really dull and livens up her prose with a famous but unaccredited phrase from Shakespeare: “to thine own self be true.”
Has plagiarism occurred?
No. Jane assumes that the reader will recognize the quote and that no one will think it’s her original phrase. The credit to Shakespeare is left out because she deems it unnecessary, not because she’s being deceptive.
Jose get an assignment in his third grade class to give a presentation on choo-choo trains. He goes home and asks his parents about it, then he watches a couple of shows on TV about trains. His friend has a father who works on trains, and he shows him some drawings of the inside of a locomotive. Jose eventually draws his own picture of a train and shows it to the class while telling them about the things he’s learned. He gives no credit to anyone but himself.
Has plagiarism occurred?
No. Though the information was new to Jose, he gathered up common knowledge and presented it in his own words. No one in the class thinks he’s pretending he invented trains or is the first person to talk about them.
Josie is writing a dissertation on President Bill Clinton. She’s fortunate enough to get a personal interview with him. It lasts for hours. She puts sections of the interview in her book, taking care to attribute them all correctly. She particularly likes his discussion of regulation and its effects on the economy. Worried that the dissertation is getting “quote heavy,” she takes several of his sentences explaining the basics, substitutes a few words, and leaves off the quotation marks.
Has plagiarism occurred?
Yes. Changing a few words still makes Clinton the co-author of the sentences, and removing the quotation marks means the reader will assume the passages are wholly original to her.
You are writing a seven-page research paper on the history of origami. You want to include information you found on the specific qualities of good origami paper. While this information is new to you, it may well be common knowledge in Japan. You decide to put in the information without citing a source.
Has plagiarism occurred?
I’d say no, but other teachers might say yes. Why take a chance? When you’re unsure, ask your teacher. Consult with a dissertation editor. Ask your dissertation editing service to run a report and/or flag any suspicious passages. If you’re finishing the paper the night before and can’t ask, cite your source. Nobody ever got sent to the principal for being too careful with their quotes.